The House voted Friday to block federal funding to Planned Parenthood for a year, in the chamber's first legislative response to videos showing the abortion provider's tissue harvesting practices.
The bill passed 241-187. The Senate has not yet acted on the issue.
Lawmakers are voting next on a related bill to curb some abortion procedures.
But hanging over the debate is the looming possibility of a government shutdown showdown.
GOP leaders hope the bills up for a vote Friday will satisfy conservatives who want to cut off Planned Parenthood. If not, those same conservatives could try and renew last-ditch efforts to demand the organization be de-funded as a condition for approving a must-pass government budget bill.
On Friday, House GOP Leader Kevin McCarthy, R-Calif., downplayed the chances of such drama.
"We will pass a bill that funds the government," he told Fox News.
Congress has until the end of the month to pass a new budget, or else parts of the government could again start to shutter, as happened in 2013.
Conservatives originally wanted to demand Planned Parenthood be de-funded as a condition for any budget, but House leaders tried a different tack Friday with the two bills.
The first would block Planned Parenthood's federal funds for a year. The other would impose criminal penalties on doctors who don't try saving infants born alive during abortions.
The bills were a reaction to videos showing Planned Parenthood officials casually describing how they provide researchers with tissue from aborted fetuses. The anti-abortion activists who secretly recorded the videos say they show that Planned Parenthood is illegally profiting from organ sales. The organization says it's broken no laws and is being victimized by deceitfully edited recordings.
"Anyone who watches those videos -- they are horrific," McCarthy told Fox News. "Aborting live babies for profit -- why would anybody want to spend tax dollars for that?"